How long can a moon afford to leak? Iapetus is losing its dry ice (carbon dioxide) through sublimation at a prodigious rate, say scientists in a paper in Icarus this month.1 “One can see that the long-term stability of CO2 is problematic.” Solving the mystery of the dark side on this mystery moon has been a priority since Voyager days. After the Sept. 10, 2007 flyby of Iapetus by Cassini (09/13/2007), a strange new theory was proposed: a runaway process makes the ice sublimate and migrate to the bright side or the poles (see Cassini press release from Oct 8, 2007). This apparently happens to both water ice and carbon dioxide ice (dry ice); see 10/16/2007, bullet 3. The new Icarus paper modeled what happens to the carbon dioxide. Because it is so volatile, it sublimates to gas and starts moving. The warmth of the dark side makes it leave the leading hemisphere permanently. It migrates to cold traps at the poles – for awhile. During Saturn’s 29.5 year orbit, the angle of sunlight shifts. The carbon dioxide molecules leave one pole and migrate to the other in a series of 350 hops. Thus, the CO2 moves from pole to pole each Saturnian year. Not all of the gas makes it back. Palmer and Brown calculated that 12% of it reaches escape velocity and leaves the moon each orbit, never to return. Yet carbon dioxide was detected in abundance on the surface. How could any be left after billions of years? If Iapetus had started with a layer of carbon dioxide ice 5 km thick, they estimated, it could only last for 1.6 billion years. That’s just about a third of the assumed age of the solar system (4.5 billion years). One way to save the old age would be to add in more carbon dioxide over time. The authors ruled out comets as a source, or vents from the interior, like on Enceladus (02/10/2007). All they could suggest was that carbon dioxide is continually produced by photolysis of the unknown dark material. Yet the dark layer is known to be thin, because fresh meteor impacts show bright ice underneath. In any case, they think, the carbon dioxide could not be primordial (as old as the moon); “due to the large escape rate of CO2 from the surface, any free CO2 ice found on Iapetus implies active production, such as photochemical generation, liberation during an impact, or by an active vent.”1. Eric E. Palmer and Robert H. Brown, “The stability and transport of carbon dioxide on Iapetus,” Icarus, Volume 195, Issue 1, May 2008, Pages 434-446, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.11.020.Do they have any evidence for photochemical generation, liberation during an impact, or active vents? None whatsoever. They have been forced into hand-waving to explain away their debt of billions of years. They thought they could just drop in the Bank of Time again and make another one of their reckless drafts (07/02/2007). This time, the teller Japheth (the root name of Iapetus) is refusing to heed their song and dance, saying they can’t withdraw any more billions without showing some collateral.(Visited 14 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Emily van Rijswijck Finance minister Pravin Gordhan praised South Africans for submitting their tax returns on time.(Image:World Economic Forum) MEDIA CONTACTS • Malerato Sekha SARS: Senior communications officer RELATED ARTICLES • Gordhan: making SA work smarter • SMMEs are future of SA economy • SA to host 2012 business congress • Gordhan: the time for talking is overSouth Africa’s tax collecting institution, the South African Revenue Services (Sars) has set new records in tax collecting over the past year and has also been recognised as a leader in revenue collection in the world.From an international perspective, Sars was named as one of the top 40 performing countries in a survey of 183 for the ease with which businesses can pay taxes in South Africa.And on a local level, preliminary findings announced by Sars following the closing of the 2011 tax season shows an increase in the country’s tax base by 23% over last year.International recognitionThe international survey Paying Taxes 2012 recorded the ease of paying taxes across a wide range of economies and was undertaken by global auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC) in partnership with the World Bank and the International Finance Corporation, a World Bank member company.“Paying Taxes 2012 is a unique study … which measures the ease of paying taxes across 183 economies worldwide. It records the taxes and mandatory contributions that a medium-size company must pay in a given year as well as measuring the administrative burden of paying taxes and contributions,” the official website notes.In the survey, South Africa ranks 36th in the world, comparing favourably with first world countries such as Sweden at 44, Australia at 52 and the US at 69.Botswana was the best performing African country with a ranking of 25, while Zambia also did well, coming in at 42.The survey measured all taxes and contributions payable by businesses as stipulated by governments. This applied to contributions on a federal, national or local level, for business- (such as VAT), labour- (social contributions such as pensions) or income-related taxes, and which have an impact on the company’s financial statements.Three sub-indicatorsRankings were based on three sub-indicators with each scoring 33.3%: the amount of time it takes to compile returns; the number of tax payments made per year; and the total tax rate. This latter indicator is the total tax liability of the firm as a percentage of profits after accounting for allowable deductions and exemptions.Now in its seventh year, the study provides some interesting insights into trends in world economies, from the biggest, China (121), to some of the smallest economies such as the Maldives which ranked first. Venezuela came in at the bottom of the list.Generally speaking, high-income economies fared better than low-income economies where the tax process tended to be burdensome and complicated. Yet, the survey notes that 60% of governments are embracing reform and are striving to make taxation easier in order to encourage economic growth.Based on the actual results of the three indicators, a medium-sized company in South Africa makes nine tax payments per year, spends about two weeks compiling its taxes and has a tax burden of 33.1 % on its commercial profit.Tax season closed The South African tax season for 2010/2011 closed on 25 November 2011, with Sars reporting an increase of 23 % in tax returns filed compared to the previous year. A total of 4.86-million returns were received.Sars contributes much of its success to the introduction of its electronic tax return filing system, eFiling. This is proving to be the most popular method for paying taxes, and over 99 % of South Africans now use it. Sars introduced eFiling in 2007.Electronic tax return systems are also growing in popularity globally, with an increase in the number of countries opting for this method in order to make it easier to pay taxes, the PWC survey found.“The most common feature of tax reform this year was the introduction of electronic systems – 66 economies now have online filing and payment systems,” it notes.South Africa’s finance minister Pravin Gordhan was elated with the preliminary findings.“Some five million taxpayers submitted their returns on time. This is a fantastic achievement for a young democracy, and it begins to explain the extent of compliance that we have,” he said at the release of the preliminary outcomes of the tax season on 31 November.In addition, eFiling is saving the country millions per year, money which is being spent on modernising the tax system, Gordhan added.Fast on refundsAnd it is not just the taxman that benefits from the improved collection process. Over 98% of tax assessments are now completed within 24 hours of receipt.Faster turnaround times means faster refunds, as many happy tax payers realised when they received their refunds within 72 hours of filing their assessments. Sars improved its refund turnaround time by over 10%, year on year.
The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has directed the Odisha government to pay compensation of ₹6 lakh to victims of witchcraft who were forced to consume human excreta.Eight villagers, including two girls of Olapur village in Ganjam district, were allegedly tortured and forced to eat human excreta in full public view by fellow villagers who had accused them of practising witchcraft on January 19, 2015.No securityHuman rights lawyer Radhakanta Tripathy had moved the NHRC pointing out that the State had failed to provide security to victims and prevent violence associated with the blind belief.Mr. Tripathy had informed the panel that following the incident, four of the victims had fled to Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, while the whereabouts of the two victims, Jhunu and Susama, were not known.He had sought a thorough investigation into the case, action against the culprits and compensation for the victims, besides a report on steps taken by the State government to prevent sorcery and violence associated with it.The Commission had got the incident investigated by the Superintendent of Police, Ganjam, which admitted that victims were tortured.Mental harmDespite existence of the Odisha Prevention of Witch Hunting Act, 2013, many women were branded as witch and thereafter they as well as their family members had been subjected to various kind of atrocities and tortures, including physical (rape, killings and disfiguring their body parts), mental and economic harm, observed the NHRC.Show-cause notices It was of the view that the State had failed to discharge its constitutional duties, resulting in violation of human rights of the victims. The NHRC had issued show-cause notices to the State Home Department as well as the Ganjam district administration.When the panel did not receive a satisfactory reply, it directed the State Chief Secretary to pay compensation of ₹75,000 to each victim and submit a compliance report along with proof of payment within six weeks.
Jonathan Powyer is a high achieving referee with a difference.Jonathan is deaf but this hasn’t stopped him from achieving incredible things in Touch Football. At last weekend’s New South Wales Touch Association Referees Awards night, Jonathan was recognised with an elevation to a state referee, Level 4, currently the highest level a deaf referee has achieved in New South Wales, his next goal will be his Level 5 at the National Touch League.Jonathan is a committee member and one of the driving forces behind Deaf Touch Football, also managing to officiate and play at the Deaf National Championships. The Deaf National Championships is now an annual event with third event being held in Brisbane late last year.Jonathan’s passion for Touch Football has seen him travel around the country, refereeing the sport he loves. With an innate ability to read the game Jonathan’s rise in the refereeing stakes shows no sign of slowing. Touch Football Australia would like to congratulate Jonathan on his achievement and thank him for his contribution to the game.Related LinksNSW Referee Awards
Touch Football Australia (TFA) is currently seeking to appoint suitably qualified coaches to the vacant coaching and team manager positions within the National Youth Program. The Australian Youth teams will be attending the 2020 Youth Trans Tasman in Australia in January 2020.Expression of Interest ProcessTFA is seeking Expressions of Interest (EOI) from suitably qualified, currently accredited and active Elite level coaches and managers to fill the following positions.National Youth Program:Men’s 20s Coach, Assistant Coach and ManagerMen’s 18s Coach, Assistant Coach and ManagerWomen’s 20s Coach, Assistant Coach and ManagerWomen’s 18s Coach, Assistant Coach and ManagerMixed 18s Coach, Assistant Coach and ManagerMixed 20s Coach, Assistant Coach and ManagerCoach and Assistant CoachTo submit your Expression of Interest (EOI) for all coaching positions please click on the link below. The link will take you to a page to submit your details for the application.https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/youthprogram2020The EOI will include:NameContact DetailsNCAS Coaching LevelPrevious Elite level (only) Coaching ExperienceVarious questions which can be found by clicking the above link.Expressions of interest for these coaching positions will close at 5pm Monday 4th March, 2019.Team ManagerTo submit your Expression of Interest (EOI) for the team manager positions please click on the link below. The link will take you to a page to submit your details for the application.https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/youthmanager2020Expressions of interest for these positions will close at 5pm Monday 4th March 2019.Appointment TermsThe appointment term for these positions will be from date of appointment in 2019 through to completion of all responsibilities after the 2020 Youth Trans Tasman. This campaign will involve attendance by the appointed Coaches and Managers at all team and national selection camps throughout the Trans Tasman preparation.Appointment ConsiderationsAs an Australian coaching staff member there will be a large emphasis on interaction across the program, innovation within coaching and constant professional development. This will require a need for individuals who are willing to participate in a collaborative environment, with high levels of accountability, adherence to improving technical knowledge and a focus on leadership and management.The appointment processes for all volunteers within the HP Program, takes into account the balance of the applicants’ current skills and areas for improvement. In the same way coaches select athletes to fit a role within a team plan, volunteers will be selected and required to full fill the role to deliver success for Touch Football Australia.Outlined below for your information is the prescribed key selection criteria for all volunteer appointments within TFA:Actively work as leaders within the broader organisation, with an ability to promote positive/collaborative working relationships and represent the organisation in a professional manner.Actively promote a positive culture among the appointed group, reflective of the organisation’s expectations for all participants within the sport, and above all else in line with TFA Code of Conduct and other policies.Display an ability to work independently as well as within a team environment.Actively communicate and prepare for specific requirements of the role.Complete agreed assigned tasks to the expected standard of the organisation.Maintain absolute confidence with any confidential or Intellectual Property related information of the organisation.Hold and/or obtain required accreditations to undertake the role.Support TFA in the coordination and development of other volunteers.Aiding in conflict resolution as required.Photography: Phil McIlwraith
Nketiah reveals Arsenal in constant contact during Leeds loanby Ansser Sadiq8 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveArsenal loanee Eddie Nketiah says that he is constantly in contact with members of the club while on loan at Leeds United.The 20-year-old is struggling for game time at the Elland Road club in the Championship.And Nketiah says that he is still focusing on his long term future at Arsenal, which is highlighted by how they are keeping tabs on him during the loan spell.He told reporters: “I speak with Arsenal a lot, I’m in contact with quite a few people in the club, they’re always texting when I’ve done well or things I can do differently but I think it’s good to have that constant feedback from the club, to know you’re still connected with them.”I’m an Arsenal player on loan at Leeds, I feel like they have done really well to keep me involved and happy and I think they’ve been really happy with me so hopefully I can continue the form and go back and get a starting place and kick off from there.” About the authorAnsser SadiqShare the loveHave your say
Kolkata: Two persons were arrested by the Detective Department (DD) of Kolkata Police along with 4kg ganja on Wednesday night from the Anandapur area. Sleuths came to know that the ganja was intended for selling to students of various schools and colleges across the city.Police recently got tipped off about a racket being operated by some people who were supplying ganja to school students in and around the Taltala area. Based on the information, one Munni Das was arrested on March 4 opposite a school on AJC Bose Road with 3 kg ganja. Also Read – Centuries-old Durga Pujas continue to be hit among revellersSleuths came to know that apart from schools in the Taltala area, the racket used to target several other renowned schools across the city as well. On March 4, police had come to know from sources that someone would be going to a school located on AJC Bose Road to sell ganja. Based on the information, police reached the spot in plain clothes and kept a strong vigil in and around the school. In the afternoon, police officers noticed Das with a handheld shopping bag. After a while, sleuths noticed that Das was trying to approach some school students and was immediately detained. During preliminary search, ganja was found inside her shopping bag. Without wasting any time, police took her to the Narcotics Cell facility and started interrogating her. Also Read – Bengal family worships Muslim girl as Goddess Durga in Kumari PujaDuring interrogation, Das revealed the names of the duo arrested from Anandapur, identified as Dudh Kumar Halder and Parvina Bibi. Later, sleuths came to know that several students of renowned colleges and schools were their customers. Sleuths are now mulling about contacting the authorities of the schools and colleges whose names have cropped up in the case. Halder is a resident of Rajdanga, while Bibi resides on a footpath near 4 number gate of New Market.
Brussels: The European Union presented ethics guidelines Monday as it seeks to promote its own artificial intelligence sector, which has fallen behind developments in China and the United States. The European Commission, the bloc’s executive arm, unveiled a framework aimed at boosting trust in AI by ensuring, for example, data about EU citizens are not used to harm them. “Ethical AI is a win-win proposition that can become a competitive advantage for Europe: being a leader of human-centric AI that people can trust,” Commission Vice President Andrus Ansip said. Also Read – Thermal coal import may surpass 200 MT this fiscalThe guidelines list seven key requirements for “trustworthy AI” established by independent experts consulted by the Commission. Among them is one ensuring that data about citizens will not be used to harm them or to discriminate against them. The measures also call for mechanisms to ensure accountability for AI systems and for AI algorithms to be secure and reliable enough to deal with errors or inconsistencies. The Commission now aims to launch a pilot phase in which industry, research and public authorities test the list of key requirements. Also Read – Food grain output seen at 140.57 mt in current fiscal on monsoon boostIt will also involve companies from other countries and international organisations. The Commission aims to improve cooperation with “like-minded partners” such as Japan, Canada or Singapore and continue working with the G7 and G20 groups of leading economies. The updated guidelines flow from the Commission’s AI strategy unveiled in April last year, which aimed to bring public and private investment in the sector to at least 20 billion euros annually over the next decade. Europe is trying to catch up with both the US and China. A study published last month showed that China is poised to overtake the United States in artificial intelligence with a surge in academic research on the key technology. A burgeoning sector, AI is already used to recognise people in photos, filter unwanted content from online platforms and enable cars to drive themselves.
Mumbai: In just seven years, Alia Bhatt has established herself as one of the most powerful performers from the current generation, and the actor says if she gets a good opportunity she would like venture into Hollywood. The 26-year-old actor, who will soon make her debut in Telugu cinema with SS Rajamouli’s RRR, said entering any new industry would be a tough task. “I do hope to go there (Hollywood) someday and soon. That is like entering a whole new industry and that is not easy at all. I will have to do it with some more time on my hand,” Alia said. Also Read – I have personal ambitions now: PriyankaThe actor is currently busy promoting her next Kalank. She is also working on Brahmastra opposite beau Ranbir Kapoor and will be seen alongside Salman Khan in Sanjay Leela Bhansali’s Inshallah. Alia, who had a great 2018 with Raazi earning big at the box office and receiving critical acclaim, said she picks roles which challenge her as an artiste. “All the characters that I have lined up are difficult and challenging. I am aiming at nailing them. That is my vision… My choices are instinctive. It comes from my gut. When I listen to a narration and if I like it, I do it.”
More: Apple Podcasts | ESPN App | RSS FiveThirtyEight Welcome to the latest episode of Hot Takedown, FiveThirtyEight’s sports podcast. On this week’s show (July 26, 2016), we talk to The Wall Street Journal’s Jason Gay about the Tour de France and Team Sky, which has won four of the past five Tours — perhaps because of an emphasis on analytics. (That it has a lot of money also helps.) Then, Neil Paine explains why MLB teams should always at least look to buy or sell at the trade deadline, rather than hold. Finally, we talk about Nnemkadi Ogwumike’s extraordinary year for the WNBA’s L.A. Sparks and whether she’s having the best statistical season of all time. Plus, a significant digit on Roger Federer’s announcement that he will miss the rest of the tennis season because of a knee injury.Links to what we discuss are here:Jason Gay in The Wall Street Journal asks if the Tour de France needs a financial fix to help balance competition among teams.Gay describes how the eventual Tour de France winner, Chris Froome, ran up a mountain in his cleats after crashing his bike during this year’s race.On Deadspin, Patrick Redford explains how Froome dominated this year’s Tour.And William Fotheringham in the Guardian breaks down how Team Sky’s analytics and tactics helped it to victory.Last year, Neil Paine and Nate Silver came up with the “Doyle Number.” It tells us when an MLB team should be willing to trade future talent at the trade deadline in order to try to win in the current season.Neil calculated the Doyle Numbers for this year’s teams, and the Chicago Cubs came out on top, meaning the team should try to win this season rather than hoard prospects.Jim Bowden at ESPN breaks down the trade deadline objectives for all 30 MLB teams.Nnemkadi Ogwumike’s Basketball-Reference.com page. Keep an eye on FiveThirtyEight for an article about her rise.Carl Bialik writes about Roger Federer’s injury and what it means for his shot at another major title.Significant Digit: 3. That’s the number of major tennis titles won by men older than 35. All those titles were won by Ken Rosewall, an Australian whose career spanned three decades. If you’re a fan of our podcasts, be sure to subscribe on Apple Podcasts and leave a rating/review. That helps spread the word to other listeners. And get in touch by email, on Twitter or in the comments. Tell us what you think, send us hot takes to discuss and tell us why we’re wrong.